Public domain Adolf Hitler seated, far left posed with fellow soldiers during their World War I service for Germany Public domain Spartacist irregulars holding a street in Berlin during the uprising in Public domain During World War I, almostGerman Jews proudly served in military uniform as soldiers, sailors, airmen and administrators. Among the common myths circulated at the time were assertions — based on real-life examples — that Jews were war profiteering at home. The potent mix of prejudices and stereotypes quickly led a battered post-WWI German people to pin all their troubles on a ready-made scapegoat:
Aftermath of World War II Among the causes can be mentioned the rapid normalization of political relations between former Axis powers and the western Allies. After the war, the major powers were determined not to repeat the mistakes of the Great Depressionsome of which were ascribed to post—World War I policy errors.
The Marshall Plan for the rebuilding of Europe is most credited for reconciliation, though the immediate post-war situations was more complicated. Institutional arrangements[ edit ] Institutional economists point to the international institutions established in the post-war period. Structurally, the victorious Allies established the United Nations and the Bretton Woods monetary systeminternational institutions designed to promote stability.
This was achieved through a number of policies, including promoting free tradeinstituting the Marshall Planand the use of Keynesian economics. US Council of Economic Advisers[ edit ] In the United States, the Employment Act of set the goals of achieving full employment, full production, and stable prices.
It also created the Council of Economic Advisers to provide objective economic analysis and advice on the development and implementation of a wide range of domestic and international economic policy issues. In its first 7 years the CEA made five technical advances in policy making: Japan and West Germany caught up to and exceeded the GDP of the United Kingdom during these years, even as the UK itself was experiencing the greatest absolute prosperity in its history.
In France, this period is often looked back to with nostalgia as the Trente Glorieusesor "Glorious Thirty", while the economies of West Germany and Austria were characterized by Wirtschaftswunder economic miracleand in Italy it is called Miracolo economico economic miracle.
Most developing countries also did well in this period. Belgian economic miracle Belgium experienced a brief but very rapid economic recovery in the aftermath of World War II.
The comparatively light damage sustained by Belgium's heavy industry during the German occupation and the Europe-wide need for the country's traditional exports steel and coal, textiles, and railway infrastructure meant that Belgium became the first European country to regain its pre-war level of output in Economic growth in the period was accompanied by low inflation and sharp increases in real living standards.
However, lack of capital investment meant that Belgium's heavy industry was ill-equipped to compete with other European industries in the s.
This contributed to the start of deindustrialisation in Wallonia and the emergence of regional economic disparities. The economic growth occurred mainly due to productivity gains and to an increase in the number of working hours.
Indeed, the working population grew very slowly, the " baby boom " being offset by the extension of the time dedicated to study. Productivity gains came from catching up with the United States.
Among the "major" nations, only Japan had faster growth in this era than France. France by the s had become a leading world economic power and the world's fourth-largest exporter of manufactured products. It became Europe's largest agricultural producer and exporter, accounting for more than 10 percent of world trade in such goods by the s.
The service sector grew rapidly and became the largest sector, generating a large foreign-trade surplus, chiefly from the earnings from tourism. Italian economic miracle The Italian economy experienced very variable growth. In the s and early s the Italian economy boomedwith record high growth-rates, including 6.
This rapid and sustained growth was due to the ambitions of several[ quantify ] Italian businesspeople, the opening of new industries helped by the discovery of hydrocarbons, made for iron and steel, in the Po valleyre-construction and the modernisation of most Italian cities, such as Milan, Rome and Turin, and the aid given to the country after World War II notably through the Marshall Plan.
Japanese economic miracle A transistor radio made by Sanyo in Japan manufactured much of the world's consumer electronics during this period. After Japan's economy recovered from the war damage and began to boom, with the fastest growth rates in the world. Japan emerged as a significant power in many economic spheres, including steel working, car manufacturing and the manufacturing of electronics.
Japan rapidly caught up with the West in foreign trade, GNP, and general quality of life. The high economic growth and political tranquility of the mid to late s were slowed by the quadrupling of oil prices in Another serious problem was Japan's growing trade surplus, which reached record heights.
The United States pressured Japan to remedy the imbalance, demanding that Tokyo raise the value of the yen and open its markets further to facilitate more imports from the United States. The nation ranked in the top 15 most prosperous countries. However, the growth slowed and ended byas the Khrushchev regime poured resources into large military and space projects, and the civilian sector languished.
While every other major nation greatly expanded its service sector, that sector in the Soviet Union medicine, for example was given low priority.
Record years Sweden emerged almost unharmed from World War II, and experienced tremendous economic growth until the early s, as Social Democratic Prime Minister Tage Erlander held his office from to Sweden used to be a country of emigrants until the s, but the demand for labor spurred immigration to Sweden, especially from Finland and countries like Greece, Italy and Yugoslavia.
Urbanization was fast, and housing shortage in urban areas was imminent until the Million Programme was launched in the s. United Kingdom[ edit ] The national debt of the United Kingdom was at a record high percentage of the GDP as the war ended, but was largely repaid by A speech by UK Prime Minister Harold Macmillan  captures what the golden age felt like, even before the brightest years which were to come in the s.The Post Civil Rights Movement Era: New Day, New Challenges, New Racism The Post WWII Civil Rights Movement removed the physical, gross, and blatant forms of discrimination.
African Americans now had access to places of public accommodations thanks to The Civil Rights Act of nber working paper series the war at home: effects of vietnam-era military service on post-war household stability dalton conley jennifer heerwig.
The Feminine Mystique is a classic of the early years of the late twentieth century’s feminist movement. Its title is also the term coined by Betty Friedan to define the post-World War II image.
This was a sharp departure from the ornamental, verbose style of the Victorian era. Gone also were the preoccupations with beauty and nature. Potential subjects for poetry were now limitless, and poets took full advantage of this new freedom. Deconference was an exploration in post-cyborgism (i.e.
what comes after the postcorporeal era), and thus explored issues of postpostmodernism, postpoststructuralism, and the like. To understand this transition from 'pomo' (cyborgism) to 'popo' (postcyborgism) we must first understand the cyborg era itself. In the Anglo-US world, post-War liberalism has been on the defensive since the s.
This is normally shown through various wage or wealth graphs, but I’m going to show two graphs of a different nature. The first, to the right, is the number of strikes involving more than 1K workers.