In a new Poor Law was introduced. Some people welcomed it because they believed it would: Children who entered the workhouse would receive some schooling. In return for this care, all workhouse paupers would have to work for several hours each day.
Corresponding arrangements for the school board for London were set out in sections Sections dealt with a range of administrative and financial matters including: In relation to school attendance 74the Act empowered school boards to make by-laws 'Requiring the parents of children of such age, not less than five years nor more than thirteen years, as may be fixed by the byelaws, to cause such children unless there is some reasonable excuse to attend school'.
Boards were also empowered to determine the time during which children were to attend school with exceptions for religious observance ; and to pay all or part of the school fees of any child whose parents were in poverty. The remainder of Part I of the Act covered various technical and administrative matters.
Part II of the Act, dealing with the parliamentary grant, stated that: After the thirty-first day of March one thousand eight hundred and seventy-one no parliamentary grant shall be made to any elementary school which is not a public elementary school within the meaning of this Act.
No parliamentary grant shall be made in aid of building, enlarging, improving, or fitting up any elementary school, except in pursuance of a memorial duly signed, and containing the information required by the Education Department for enabling them to decide on the application, and Education in victorian england to the Education Department on or before the thirty-first day of December one thousand eight hundred and seventy.
Education in victorian england, section required the Education Department to provide an annual report to Parliament. There were five Schedules to the Act, dealing with various administrative matters.
The church problem The dual system - of voluntary and board schools - created by the Act was 'an untidy compromise', but it did represent 'another step towards secularization and state control' Stephens The 'Cowper-Temple clause' pronounced 'Cooper-Temple' in section 14 of the Act 'No religious catechism or religious formulary which is distinctive of any particular denomination shall be taught in the school' was named after its proposer, Liberal MP William Cowper-Temple It banned denominational teaching in the new board schools.
But in other respects, the Act failed to resolve the problem of the involvement of the churches in state educational provision. It could have begun to separate church and state, as was happening in other countries. The churches had not been able to make universal provision, so the state would now fund schools managed by locally elected and interdenominationally representative school boards.
Church schools would continue to receive a maintenance grant of up to fifty per cent, but once the system was in place they would get no money for new buildings.
Some assumed that the Act would result in a gradual decline in the number of church schools and their replacement by board schools. The churches, however, were determined to strengthen and consolidate their position, so they took full advantage of the generous offer of government funds for new buildings.
In the six months allowed, the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church 'moved with great alacrity to plan as many as they could' Gates Two thousand requests for building grants were made by the National Society, five hundred by the Catholic and Free Churches.
In just fifteen years, the number of Church of England schools rose from 6, to 11, and Catholic schools from to In the same period, the number of children attending church schools doubled to two million.
The cost of sustaining this expanded provision was huge.
During the s the number of voluntary schools fell by over there were 14, inwhile the number of board schools rose by almost a thousand. Some church leaders complained about what they saw as the unfair financial advantages enjoyed by the board schools.
In Roman Catholic Cardinal Manning declared that the administration of the Act was 'open to the censure of inequality and injustice' quoted in Armytage The Church of England - to its shame - even sought to undermine the new system by attempting to prevent the election of school boards.
For more on this issue see The School Boards below. Mundella understood the motive behind these attacks and wrote to a friend: I keep screwing up [ie improving] the quality of education and insist on the quantity being ample, and all this makes increased and increasing demands upon the voluntary system, and brings the poorer school gradually in the hands of the board.
That is the real reason for Manning's outcry quoted in Armytage Science and Mathematics in Victorian Education: A Bibliography The Anti-Technological Bias of Victorian Education and Britain's Economic Decline Harriet Martineau, Economics Educator.
The Victorian era of the England history was the reigning period of the Queen Victoria. This was the period to This was an extensive period of prosperity, peace, refined responsiveness and great national self-possession for England.
As a historical novelist, I have found 'Daily Life in Victorian England' very helpful for understanding period details. Mitchell covers a wide variety of walks of life during the nineteenth century, from the aristocrats we see in movies to the impoverished laborers, with a .
Education in Victorian England Monitorial System In the Monitorial System, there was no direct instruction from the teacher. This was, in fact, one of its greatest selling points in the late 's; it was incredibly economical.
Victorian Children and Life in Victorian Times.
Although Victorian schools are different in many ways to today’s classrooms some of the methods used help shape our education system today. Victorian schools are still used throughout Britain and remain an important part of history.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June until her death on 22 January The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe.
In terms of moral sensibilities and political reforms, this period began.