Written in Plain English for the Average Horse Owner Most horse diseases are preventable Bone spavin is one of the top sport horse related injuries that owners and veterinarians face. Learn how to manage a horse with hock arthritis. A bowed tendon that is not properly treated and allowed the necessary time to heal can leave a horse unsound for life. Learn how to spot and treat this fast moving bacterial infection in equines.
Protozoa[ edit ] The female mosquito of the genus Anopheles carry the malaria parasite. Four different species of protozoa cause malaria Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium vivax.
Worldwide, malaria is a leading cause of premature mortality, particularly in children under the age of five, with an estimated million cases and more than half a million deaths inaccording to the World Malaria Report published by WHO. The death toll increased to one million as of according to the American Mosquito Control Association.
Myiasis Botflies are known to parazitise humans or other mammalians thus causing myiasis and to use mosquitoes as intermediate vector agents to deposit eggs on a host.
The human botfly Dermatobia hominis attaches its eggs to the underside of a mosquito, and when the mosquito takes a blood meal from a human or an animal, the body heat of the mammalian host induces hatching of larvae.
Helminthiasis[ edit ] Some species of mosquito can carry the filariasis worm, a parasite that causes a disfiguring condition often referred to as elephantiasis characterized by a great swelling of several parts of the body; worldwide, around 40 million people are living with a filariasis disability.
The viral diseases yellow feverdengue feverZika fever and chikungunya are transmitted mostly by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Louis encephalitisWest Nile feverJapanese encephalitisLa Crosse encephalitis and several other encephalitic diseases are carried by several different mosquitoes.
Symptoms range from mild flu-like illness to encephalitis, coma and death.
West Nile virus was accidentally introduced into the United States in and by had spread to almost every state with over 3, cases in Other species of Aedes as well as Culex and Culiseta are also involved in the transmission of disease.
Transmission[ edit ] A mosquito's period of feeding is often undetected; the bite only becomes apparent because of the immune reaction it provokes. When a mosquito bites a human, it injects saliva and anti-coagulants. For any given individual, with the initial bite there is no reaction but with subsequent bites the body's immune system develops antibodies and a bite becomes inflamed and itchy within 24 hours.
This is the usual reaction in young children. With more bites, the sensitivity of the human immune system increases, and an itchy red hive appears in minutes where the immune response has broken capillary blood vessels and fluid has collected under the skin.
This type of reaction is common in older children and adults. Some adults can become desensitized to mosquitoes and have little or no reaction to their bites, while others can become hyper-sensitive with bites causing blistering, bruising, and large inflammatory reactions, a response known as skeeter syndrome.
Mechanism[ edit ] Mosquitoes carrying such arboviruses stay healthy because their immune systems recognizes the virions as foreign particles and "chop off" the virus's genetic coding, rendering it inert. Human infection with a mosquito-borne virus occurs when a female mosquito bites someone while its immune system is still in the process of destroying the virus's harmful coding.
Data has shown that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum alters the mosquito vector's feeding behavior by increasing frequency of biting in infected mosquitoes, thus increasing the chance of transmitting the parasite. The parasite uses human liver cells as hosts for maturation where it will continue to replicate and grow, moving into other areas of the body via the bloodstream.
The spread of this infection cycle then continues when other mosquitoes bite the same victim.
The result will cause that mosquito to ingest the parasite and allow it to transmit the Malaria disease into another person through the same mode of bite injection.INTRODUCING THE INFECTIOUS DISEASES Since ancient times, physicians have known that many diseases are transmissible, but because of the subtle and idiosyncratic ways in which infections seem to travel, the early-modern physicians thought the responsible particles must be much smaller than our cells (correct) and closer in size to atoms (not correct).
Horse Diseases - PetMD offers causes, diagnosis and treatment advice for horse illness symptoms. Diseases A-Z: Horse. Select from our A to Z list to read all about a disease or condition in one comprehensive overview. Find your topic by first letter.
Equine colic is a relatively common disorder of the digestive system. Selenium deficiency in equines can be corrected to prevent horse diseases like infertility in adult horses and white muscle disease newborn foals.
Thrush in horses is a condition that affects the frog of the horses hoof, a very unhealthy condition for your horses .
Impaction colic isn’t directly caused by extreme cold or snow, but it’s more common during colder months due to these 4 common changes in care and management. West Nile Virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE or “Triple E”) are viruses that occur in Massachusetts and can cause illness ranging from a mild fever to .
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare illness in humans, and only a few cases are reported in the United States each year.