Edit Central to the nature of models, from general models to scale models, is the employment of representation literally, "re-presentation" to describe particular aspects of a phenomenon or the manner of interaction among a set of phenomena.
Saul McLeodupdated There are various approaches in contemporary psychology. An approach is a perspective i. There may be several different theories within an approach, but they all share these common assumptions.
You may wonder why there are so many different psychology perspectives and whether one approach Psychology theory correct and others wrong. Most psychologists would agree that no one perspective is correct, although in the past, in the early days of psychology, the behaviorist Psychology theory have said their perspective was the only truly scientific one.
Each perspective has its strengths and weaknesses, and brings something different to our understanding of human behavior. For this reason, it is important that psychology does have different perspectives on the understanding and study of human and animal behavior.
Below is a summary of the six main psychological approaches sometimes called perspectives in psychology. Behaviorism is different from most other approaches because they view people and animals as controlled by their environment and specifically that we are the result of what we have learned from our environment.
Behaviorism is concerned with how environmental factors called stimuli affect observable behavior called the response. The behaviorist approach proposes two main processes whereby people learn from their environment: Classical conditioning involves learning by association, and operant conditioning involves learning from the consequences of behavior.
Though looking into natural reflexes and neutral stimuli he managed to condition dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell through repeated associated with the sound of the bell and food. The principles of CC have been applied in many therapies.
These include systematic desensitization for phobias step-by-step exposed to a feared stimulus at once and aversion therapy. Skinner investigated operant conditioning of voluntary and involuntary behavior. Therefore behavior occurs for a reason, and the three main behavior shaping techniques are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment.
Behaviorism also believes in scientific methodology e. Behaviorism rejects the idea that people have free will, and believes that the environment determines all behavior. Behaviorism is the scientific study of observable behavior working on the basis that behavior can be reduced to learned S-R Stimulus-Response units.
Behaviorism has been criticized in the way it under-estimates the complexity of human behavior. Many studies used animals which are hard to generalize to humans, and it cannot explain, for example, the speed in which we pick up language.
There must be biological factors involved. Freud believes that events in our childhood can have a significant impact on our behavior as adults. He also believed that people have little free will to make choices in life. Instead, our behavior is determined by the unconscious mind and childhood experiences.
It is the original psychodynamic theory and inspired psychologists such as Jung and Erikson to develop their own psychodynamic theories.
Freud, the founder of psychoanalysisexplained the human mind as like an iceberg, with only a small amount of it being visible, that is our observable behavior, but it is the unconscious, submerged mind that has the most, underlying influence on our behavior. Freud used three main methods of accessing the unconscious mind:Social comparison theory states that we determine our own social and personal worth based on how we stack up against others we perceive as somehow faring better or worse.
We sometimes compare. Explore the various types of psychology, their history, and the major theorists behind them and apply the knowledge to your mental and emotional well-being. Psychology — the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes — attempts to uncover why and how we do what we do.
Different theories of psychology govern how different psychologists approach research into human behavior. Each of the following grand theories provides an overarching framework within which most psychological . Covers social psychology, perspectives, abnormal psychology, research methods, psychodynamic, humanism, cognitive psychology, behaviorism, and biological psychology.
Psychology Psych is a general psychology text adapted to an online guided format, which summarizes the major theories, concepts, and treatment . Psychology Theories. big list of academic theories, hypotheses, or whatever you want to call them, that have some bearing on persuasion.
Think they're not 'real world' stuff?
Positive Face see Politeness Theory. Positive psychology. Positive Test Strategy see Confirmation Bias. Positivity Effect. Post-Decision Dissonance. Personality psychology looks at the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that make a person unique.
Some of the best known theories in psychology are devoted to the subject of personality including the trait theory of personality, the "big 5" theory of personality, and Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.