No, it cannot be patented. Definition of Discovery The term discovery denotes the act of detecting or uncovering something for the very first time, which is already there in the world, but was not recognised previously as relevant. It is the scrutiny of new events, actions, phenomena or reasoning. The discovery relies on ideas, collaborations or even former discoveries.
Some social changes result from the innovations that are adopted in a society. These can include technological inventions, new scientific knowledge, new Scientific methods are important to invention and innovation, or a new fashion in the sphere of leisure.
Diffusion is not automatic but selective; an innovation is adopted only by… Scientific innovation In The Structure of Scientific RevolutionsAmerican philosopher and historian Thomas Kuhn made a distinction between what he called normal science and episodes of scientific revolution.
For instance, in astronomy, it was believed for centuries that the planets orbited around the Earth the geocentric model and complex models and calculations were developed to try to explain the observed movements of the planets within this model.
In contrast, scientific revolutions involve challenging or changing the dominant paradigms, as Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus did when he proposed a heliocentric universe in which the Earth as well as the other planets orbited around the sun.
Most science in any time period is normal science, with people working within an existing framework that includes methods, assumptions about nature, symbolic generations, and paradigmatic experiments. Even observations that do not seem to fit the existing paradigm will be explained within it as planetary motion was for centuries in the geocentric model or ignored as anomalies.
At some point, however, the contradictions and anomalies may become too obvious and trigger a scientific revolution, as happened in the 16th century in Europe notably not recognized by a powerful social institution, the Catholic Church, until centuries later.
Most scientists and technical employees today are analogous to normal scientists, working to discover practical applications or to illuminate small areas of knowledge within a given scientific model. For instance, many scientists in the United States are employees of corporations, government agencies, and so on, and are expected to work within accepted models rather than challenge them.
Patent law is intended to allow both desires to be met.
The purpose of the patent system is to stimulate scientific and technical invention by reserving the right to profit from a discovery for a period of years to the patent holder which may be an individual or organization such as a company or university while also making the information from the discovery public so that others may learn from it.
The patent holder may sell or license the right for others to use his or her discoveries and collect fees from them.
Facilitating innovation within organizations Changes in organization may be less dramatic than scientific discoveries but are equally important in terms of promoting efficiency and productivity.
For instance, an organization may innovate in the way it operates or delivers services, resulting in greater efficiency, fewer errors, faster speed of production, and so on. In The Challenge of Innovating in GovernmentCanadian political scientist Sandford Borins identifies several characteristics typical of organizations that are successful at innovation: Top management supports innovation and provides leadership in this area.
Individuals who push for innovation are rewarded. The organization dedicates resources specifically to innovation rather than expecting it to happen as a matter of course. The organization has a diverse workforce and welcomes ideas from outside the mainstream.
The organization is willing to experiment with different ways of doing things with the understanding that not all will be successful. Borins notes that some of these characteristics are the opposite of what is seen in many government organizations and companies.
For instance, in many organizations, people who suggest or enact innovation may be subject to sanction or dismissal, and the organization may display no interest in testing different ideas to see which are useful and practical.
Some organizations have a superficial commitment to innovation in the sense that they eagerly embrace whatever the current trendy solution is but do not display the commitment to evaluate the usefulness of the new ideas or conduct any kind of measurement to see if they produce the desired results.
Both approaches stifle effective innovation as they would stifle effective scientific progress because they are based on received beliefs and authority rather than on empirical observation and testing. Examples of industrial and technological innovation Moravian-born American economist and sociologist Joseph Schumpeter used the term creative destruction to describe change of the economy from within.
He viewed entrepreneurswho invent new goods and new ways of doing things, as essential to keeping an economic system constantly evolving. New products or ways of doing things necessarily disrupt existing markets. For example, the department and catalog store Montgomery Ward was once a major retailer but went out of business indue in part to loss of market share to low-price department stores such as Kmart and Walmart.
Similarly, the instant-film camera developed by Polaroid was a popular consumer product for several decades but ceased production when it was surpassed by digital cameras.
Schumpeter saw the process of creative destruction as positive in the long run because it promoted economic growth and rewarded innovation and improvement. Such experiences were informative to businesses to illustrate that individuals and corporations could also suffer when their particular skills or products were no longer demanded by the market.The scientific method has been very important in invention and innovation because it eliminates bias on the part of the scientist.
innovation and new technologies New technologies influence our daily lives in every field. The exponential increase in innovations has changed our world, more than ever in the last few decades, including health sciences and medical practice. Innovation: Innovation, the creation of a new way of doing something, whether the enterprise is concrete (e.g., the development of a new product) or abstract (e.g., the development of a new philosophy or theoretical approach to a problem).
Innovation plays a key role in the development of sustainable methods. All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Reinforced Concrete, the State Scientific-Research Institute of Glass, and Avtosteklo, are covered by a system of licenses. The most important stage in invention work is the transfer of the development into production.
Design Thinking The New Science of Designing for Humans. The days of privileging creativity over science in design thinking are over. The rise of behavioral science and impact evaluation has created a new way for engineering programs and human interactions—a methodology called behavioral design.
AT A GLANCE: In , German inventor Johannes Gutenberg invented a printing press process that, with refinements and increased mechanization, remained the principal means of .