The characteristics of alcohol and its effects on the body and mind

History ; Suicide Influences and Factors:

The characteristics of alcohol and its effects on the body and mind

Use in children and adolescents. They are more likely to occur in older people. Should this occur, use of the drug should be discontinued. Tolerance Some loss of efficacy to the hypnotic effect of short-acting benzodiazepines may develop after repeated use for a few weeks.

Amnesia Benzodiazepines may induce anterograde amnesia at therapeutic dosages, with the risk increasing at high dosages. The condition occurs most often several hours after ingesting the product, and therefore patients should ensure that they will be able to have an uninterrupted sleep of 7 - 8 hours.

Amnesia effects may be associated with inappropriate behaviour. Dependence Use of benzodiazepines even at therapeutic doses may lead to the development of physical and psychic dependence upon these products.

The risk of dependence increases with dose and duration of treatment; it is also greater in patients with a history of alcohol or drug abuse or in patients with significant personality disorders. Once physical dependence has developed, abrupt termination of treatment will be accompanied by withdrawal symptoms.

These may consist of headaches, muscle pain, extreme anxiety, tension, depression, restlessness, insomnia, confusion and irritability and sweating. In severe cases the following symptoms may occur: Rebound insomnia and anxiety A transient syndrome whereby the symptoms that led to treatment with a benzodiazepine recur in an enhanced form, may occur on withdrawal of hypnotic treatment.

It may be accompanied by other reactions including mood changes, anxiety, sleep disturbances and restlessness. These symptoms may be difficult to distinguish from the original symptoms for which the drug was prescribed.

Duration of treatment and withdrawal The duration of treatment should be as short as possible see section 4.

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Extension beyond this period should not take place without re-evaluation of the situation. It may be useful to inform the patient when treatment is started that it will be of limited duration and to explain precisely how the dosage will be progressively decreased.

Moreover, it is important that the patient should be aware of the possibility of rebound phenomena, thereby minimising anxiety over such symptoms should they occur while the medicinal product is being discontinued. There are indications that, in the case of benzodiazepines with a short duration of action, withdrawal phenomena can become manifest within the dosage interval, especially when the dosage is high.

When benzodiazepines with a long duration of action are being used it is important to warn against changing to a benzodiazepine with a short duration of action as withdrawal symptoms may develop.

Older people Older people should be given a reduced dose see section 4. Due to the myorelaxant effect of benzodiazepines there is risk of falls and consequently of hip fractures, particularly for older patients when they get up at night.

The characteristics of alcohol and its effects on the body and mind

Respiratory insufficiency A lower dose is recommended for patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency due to the risk of respiratory depression. Hepatic or renal impairment Benzodiazepines are not indicated to treat patients with severe hepatic insufficiency as it may precipitate encephalopathy.

Patients with impaired renal or hepatic function should be monitored frequently and have their dosage adjusted carefully according to patient response. Lower doses may be sufficient in these patients. Psychoses Benzodiazepines are not indicated for the primary treatment of psychotic illness.

Depression Pre-existing depression may be unmasked during benzodiazepine use. Benzodiazepines should not be used alone to treat depression or anxiety associated with depression suicide may be precipitated in such patients. Drug and alcohol abuse Benzodiazepines should be used with extreme caution in patients with a history of alcohol or drug abuse.The negative effects of alcohol on the body occur every single time we drink, even if it’s just one glass of wine or a bottle of beer.

The more you drink, the stronger these negative effects become, and the faster the pleasant effects start to fade.

The infographic below shows the effects of alcohol on the body and the mind. Feb 23,  · Using a standardized statistical technique for combining the results of multiple studies, the meta-analysis revealed that women with a history of abortion face higher rates of anxiety (34 percent higher) and depression (37 percent higher), heavier alcohol use ( percent higher) and marijuana use ( percent higher), and higher rates of suicidal behavior ( percent higher).

Dec 12,  · Psychiatric and paradoxical reactions. Reactions like restlessness, agitation, irritability, aggressiveness, delusion, rages, nightmares, hallucinations, psychoses, inappropriate behaviour and other adverse behavioural effects are known to occur with using benzodiazepines.

The Effects of Drug Abuse Written By: Marisa Crane, B.S. Edited By: the potency or purity of the drug, and whether it is mixed with any other mind-altering substances. Drugs can affect a person’s thinking, mood, energy Weight and body composition also affect alcohol metabolism and intoxication levels.

Some common short-term effects of. "The relaxation response is a physical state of deep rest that changes the physical and emotional responses to stress and the opposite of the fight or flight response." Herbert Benson, M.D.

Associate Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School. The long-term effects of alcohol on the body and the mind are significant and sometimes permanent. The long-term effects of alcohol depend on several factors, including the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumed.

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